Yenal ÜNAL


The Social Democratic Party is one of the political groups established during the armistice period. The party was based on the Wilson Principles, where great hopes were nourished at that time, and was established to develop the Ottoman State in line with the needs of the age. The center of the party is Istanbul. An official application was filed on December 22, 1918 for the establishment of the Social Democratic Party. The head of the party was Hasan Rıza, who was both a teacher and a doctor, Deputy Chairmans of the party were Kazım and Retired Brigadier General Halit, the party's Secretary General was Yorgaki Habib, the party's Assistant Scribe was Doctor Lebib, the party's Cashier was Cemal and the party's Deputy Cashier was Salim. The members of the party were Mehmet Sait, Teacher Osman Nuri, Teacher Abdullah, Attorney Cemil El-Subûti, Retired Colonel Hamdi, Captain Seyit Ali and İbrahim Bey. Although the Social Democratic Party does not leave a deep trace in Turkish political history, it is a remarkable political structure for the history of Turkish democracy; because it has a source identity in terms of showing the concepts of social democracy and social policy that are frequently emphasized by humanities today that began to be discussed in Turkey since the Ottoman era. In other words, the concept of social democracy and one of the first attempts to establish policies to be developed in this direction was carried out by this party. Therefore, the party is not a target point in the history of social democracy, but it is a signpost on the way to the goal. The Social Democratic Party, like many other political parties established during the armistice period, lost its functionality after the 1919 elections and withdrew from Turkish political life and it failed to turn into a long-term political structure. On the basis of the most original sources reached within the scope of this research, the Social Democratic Party and the party program were analyzed from various perspectives and various evaluations were made on these issues.

Anahtar Kelimeler

Social Democratic Party, Social Democracy, Turkish Democracy History, Hasan Rıza, Elections of 1919.

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)


I. Archives

BOA. A.MTZ.04/161.6


II. The Newspapers and Periodicals

Alemdar newspaper (October 31, 1919), “From the Social Democratic Party”, Issue 319-2620.

İfham newspaper (October 23, 1919), “Declaration-Social Democratic Party”, Issue 82.

İkdam newspaper (November 26, 1919), Issue 8186.

Katkı Periodical (1975), “The Response of the Social Democratic Party, Issue 10.

Söz newspaper, (February 2, 1919). “About Ahmet Rıza Bey’s Attempt”, Issue 81.

Tek, Ahmet Ferit (October 23, 1919), “Elections”, İfham newspaper, Issue 82, p. 1.

III. Books

Armaoğlu, Fahir (2014), 20th Century Political History 1914-1995, İstanbul: Timaş Publishing, 19. Edition.

Atabay, Mithat (2015), Turkish Democracy History, Edirne: Paradigma Academy Publishing, 2nd Edition.

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (2003), The Great Speech, (Prepared by Zeynep Korkmaz), Ankara: Atatürk Research Center Publications.

Çavdar, Tevfik (2013), History of Democracy in Turkey (1839-1950), Volume 1, Ankara: Imge Bookstore, 5th Edition.

Demirel, Ahmet (2017), Elections in the First Struggle of the National Assembly Period, İstanbul: İletişim Publishing, 3. Edition.

Emrealp, Sadun (1991), From Social Democracy to Social Democracy, İstanbul: Afa Publishing.

Güner, Zekai-Kabataş, Orhan (1990), National Struggle Statements and Press, Ankara: Atatürk Cultural Center Publications.

Hasan Rıza (1920), Socialism is a Vital and Important Issue that Must Be Considered for Everyone.

Kahraman, Hasan Bülent (1993), For a New Social Democracy, Ankara: İmge Bookstore.

Lewis, Bernard (2008), The Emergence of Modern Turkey, (Translated by Boğaç Babür Turna), Ankara: Arkadaş Bookstore.

Lütfi Simavî (2007), What I Saw at the Palace of Sultan Mehmet Reşat Han and His Successor, (Prepared by Sevda Şakar), İstanbul: Şehir Publishing.

Sarıtaş, İbrahim (2006), Social Democracy From Past to Present, Ankara: Orion Bookstore.

Tunaya, Tarık Zafer (1986), Political Parties in Turkey, Armistice Era 1918-1922, Volume 2, İstanbul: Hürriyet Foundation Publishing, 2. Edition.

Tunçay, Mete (1991), The Leftist Flow in Turkey Documents-I (1908-1925), İstanbul: BDS Publishing.

Turan, Şerafettin (2013), The History of Turkish Revolution, Volume 1, Ankara: Bilgi Publishing, 4. Edition.

Ünal, Yenal (2009), Ahmet Ferit Tek, İstanbul: Bilgeoğuz Publishing.

Yalçın, E. Semih (2004), History of the Republic of Turkey I, Resources, Ankara: Siyasal Bookstore.

IV. Articles

Akıncı, Abdulvahap-USTA, Sefa (2015), “Analysis of Internal Factors Affecting Life in Transition to Multi-Party System in Turkey” Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey University, Journal of Social and Economic Research, Issue 17, p. 41-52.

Bakacak, Alper (2016), “Ottoman State in the Early 20th Century”, History of the Republic of Turkey from the Beginning until Today, (Edited by Temuçin Faik Ertan), Ankara: Siyasal Bookstore, 4. Edition, p. 39-65.

Baykal, Tan et al. (2018), “Reflections of the 1919 Elections in the Turkish Press”, Social Sciences Research Journal, Volume 7, (2), p. 214-229.

Uzun, Turgay (2010), “Political Parties and Turkey”, Political Parties from the Period of Union and Progress up to Now, (Edited by Turgay Uzun), Ankara: Orion Bookstore, p. 7-30.

Ünal, Yenal (2019), “National Struggle: Political Developments Experienced in Turkey From the Armistice of Mondros to the Treaty of Sevres”, History of the Republic of Turkey- Independence, Establishment and Modernization (1920-1938), (Edited by Nurgün Koç), Volume 1, İstanbul: İdeal Culture Publishing, p. 92-150.

Yavuz, Resul (2017), “The View and the Attitude of Allies High Commissioners Toward İstanbul During The Declaration of National Pact”, Tarih ve Günce Periodical, Issue 1, p. 281-304.

Yılmaz, Murat (2005), “Hüseyin Sırrı Bellioğlu”, Political Thought in Modern Turkey-Liberalism, Volume 7, İletişim Publishing, p. 144-163.

V. Dictionaries-Encyclopedias

Devellioğlu, Ferit (2001), Ottoman-Turkish Encyclopedic Dictionary, Ankara: Aydın Bookstore Publications, 18. Edition.

Parlatır, İsmail (2014), Ottoman Turkish Dictionary, Ankara: Yargı Publishing, 6. Edition.

VI. Internet Resources

http://www.ttk.gov.tr/genel/tarih-cevirme-kilavuzu/ (Accessed on 18.02.2020.)


  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.