TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR: NEUTRALITY, DIPLOMACY AND STATECRAFT / İKİNCİ DÜNYA SAVAŞINDA TÜRK DIŞ POLİTİKASI: TARAFSIZLIK, DİPLOMASİ VE DEVLET YÖNETİMİ

Şaban Halis ÇALIŞ, Çağlar SÖKER

Özet


The aim of this article is to revisit the questions of how and why Turkey stayed neutral during the Second World War. It was obvious that neither its economy nor its military capacity was enough powerful to afford such a big war for a long time. However, the role of diplomacy and statecraft cannot be ignored in this process, too. Indeed, Turkish decision-makers as political leaders and diplomats who experienced devastating effects of many wars were not in favor of entering any war. Although some people may think that if Turkey had entered the war on the side when the Allies began to pressure for it, it could gain a lot of advantages after the war. However, as this research article has also demonstrated, such arguments are completely groundless for three additional reasons: When, how and in which side should Turkey join the war while the policies of warring parties and the winning side of the war appeared to change from time to time until towards the end of 1944? At that time none wanted Turkey to participate actively in the war on their side. On the other hand, there is no doubt that if Turkey fought in the war, this would cost many million lives in Turkey, in addition to a ruined country from top to down. If there is a success in this war, they mostly belonged to the leaders who played both of the roles of diplomacy and statecraft according to their connections, experiences and flexible preferences in order to keep Turkey out of the war.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Foreign Policy, Neutrality, Diplomacy and Statecraft

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Referanslar


Armaoğlu, Fahir (1958), ‘İkinci Dünya Harbi’nde Türkiye’, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.13, 136-58.

Ataöv, Türkkaya (1965), Turkish Foreign Policy 1939-1945, Ankara: SBF.

Atlı, Cengiz (2014) “Türkiye’de II. Dünya Savaşı Sırasında İngiliz ve Alman Büyükelçilerine Suikast Girişimi”, International Journal of Social Science, 28, Autumn II, 55-71.

Avcı, Ayşegül (2015), “Winning the War of Perception: American Attempts to Counter Germany's Military Influence in Turkey during World War II, Turkish Studies, Vol.17, 1, 202-219.

Aydemir, Şevket Süreyya (1979), İkinci Adam, Vol 2, İstanbul: Remzi.

Baxter, Christopher (2008), “Forgeries and Spies: The Foreign Office and the ‘Cicero’ Case”, Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 23, No. 6, 807-826.

Bezci, Egemen B. (2016), “Turkey’s intelligence diplomacy during the Second World War”, Journal of Intelligence History, Vol.15 No.2, 1-16.

Çalış, Şaban H. (2017), Turkey’s Cold War: Foreign Policy and Western Alignment in the Modern Republic, London: I.B. Tauris, 2017.

Çalış, Şaban H. (1999), ‘’Turkey's Search for Security and the Soviet Factor During the Second World War", S.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler MYO Dergisi, Sayı 3, 1999, 73-110;

Çalış, Şaban H. (1997), ‘’Pan-Turkism and Europeanism: A note on Turkey’s pro-German Neutrality during the Second World War’’, Central Asian Survey, Vol.16, No.1, March 1997, 103-114.

Deringil, Selim (1989), Turkish Foreign Policy During World War II: An ‘Active Neutrality’, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

DGFP (1961), Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918-1945, Series D 1937-1945, The War Years-September 1, 1940/January 31, 1941, Vol. XI, London: HMSO.

DGFP (1964), Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918-1945, Series D, The War Years-June 23, 1941/December 11, 1941, Vol. XIII, London: HMSO.

Esmer, Ahmet Şükrü And Oral Sander (1991), ‘İkinci Dünya Savaşında Türk Dış Politikası’, In Mehmet Gönlübol et. al, Olaylarla Türk Dış Politikası, Alkım: Ankara.

FRUS (Foreign Relations of the US) (1968), The Conferences at Washington, 191-1942 and Casablanca, 1943, Washington: Government Printing Office.

Gülmez, Nurettin ve Ceyhun Demirkollu, (2013), “Bir İstihbarat Savaşı: Çiçero Olayı” CBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Cilt :11, Sayı :2, 414-430.

Gürün, Kamuran (1965), Türk-Sovyet İlişkileri (1920-1953), Anakara: TTK.

Howard, Harry N. (1974), Turkey, The Straits and Us Policy, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

İsci, Onur (2019), Turkey and The Soviet Union During WWII: Diplomacy, Discord and International Relations, London: I.B. Tauris, 2019.

Kalyon, Levent (2010), Türkiye’nin Savunma Politikaları Üzerine: Kırmızı Kim?, Ankara: Nobel.

Kirk, George E. (1952), Survey of International Relations: The Middle East in The War 1939-1946, London: Oxford University Press.

Knatchbull-Hugessen, Sir Hughe (1949), Diplomat in Peace and War, London: John Murray.

Koçak, Cemil (2007), Türkiye’de Milli Şef Dönemi 1939-1945, Vol. 2, İstanbul: İletişim.

Kuniholm, Bruce R. (1980), The Origins of The Cold War in The Near East: Great Power Conflict and Diplomacy in Iran, Turkey and Greece, Princeton, Nj: Princeton University Press.

Landau, Jacob M. (1995), Pan-Turkism In Turkey: From Irredentism to Cooperation, London: C. Hurst.

Leitz, Christian (2000), Nazi Germany and Neutral Europe During the Second World War, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Merdlicott, W. N. (1956), ‘Economic Warfare’, In Arnold Toynbee And Veronica Toynbee, Survey of International Affairs 1939-1946: The War And The Neutrals, London: Oxford University Press.

Metinsoy, Murat (2017), İkinci Dünya Savaşında Türkiye, Gündelik Yaşamda Devlet ve Toplum, İstanbul: İş Bankası.

Millman, Brock (1995), “Turkish Foreign and Strategic Policy 1934-42”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3, 483-508.

Norwich University, (2018) “Diplomacy and Statecraft”, visited on 09.10.2019, https://online.norwich.edu/academic-programs/resources/diplomacy-and-statecraft-essential-differences.

Önsoy, Murat (2009), The World War Two Allied Economic Warfare: The Case of Turkish Chrome Sales, Inaugural-Dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Erlangen Nürnberg.

Oran, Baskın (2001), Türk Dış Politikası, Kurtuluş Savaşından Bugüne: Olgular, Belgeler, Yorumlar, Cilt 1: 1919-1980, and Cilt 2: 1980-2001, İstanbul: İletişim.

Özden, Hakan (2013), “The Diplomatic Manoeuvres of Turkey in World War II”, Karadeniz Araştırmaları, Bahar, Sayı 37, s.91-110.

Özdoğan, Günay G. (1994), ‘II. Dünya Savaşı Yıllarındaki Türk-Alman İlişkilerinde İç ve Dış Politika Aracı Olarak Pantürkizm’, In Faruk Sönmezoğlu (Ed.), Türk Dış Politikasının Analizi, İstanbul: Der.

Özlü, Hüsnü (2012), “İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nda, Adana Görüşmeleri Sonrası, İngiltere'den Sağlanan Askeri Yardımların, Türkiye'de Sevkiyat ve Lojistik Yapılanması” Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılap Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi, Sayı 50, Güz, 449-478.

Öztoprak, İzzet (2000 A), “İkinci Dünya Savaşı Döneminde Adana Görüşmelerinin Askeri Yönü”, Belleten, LXII, 597-618

Öztoprak, İzzet (2000 B); “İkinci Dünya Savaşı Döneminde Adana Görüşmelerinin Siyasi Yönü”, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Cilt 16, Ankara, Mart, 153-192.

Seydi, Süleyman (2004), “The Intelligence War in Turkey During the Second World War: A Nazi Spy on British Premises in Istanbul”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, 75-85.

Tamkin, Nicholas (2008), “Diplomatic SIGINT and the British Official Mind during the Second World War: Soviet claims on Turkey, 1940-45”, Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 23, No. 6, 749-766.

Tamkin, Nicholas (2009), Britain, Turkey and the Soviet Union, 1940–45, London: Plagrave.

TCDB (T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı) (1982), Türkiye Dış Politikasında 50 Yıl: İkinci Dünya Savaşı Yılları (1939-1946), Ankara: TCDB.

Vanderlippe, John M. (2001), “A Cautious Balance: The Question of Turkey in World War II”, Volume 64, Issue 1, September, 63-80.

Weber, Frank G. (1985), The Evasive Neutral: Germany, Britain, and the Quest for a Turkish Alliance in the Second World War, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

Weisband, Edward (1973), Turkish Foreign Policy, 1943-1945: Small State Diplomacy and Great Power Politics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wires, Richard (1999), The Cicero Spy Affair: German Access to British Secrets İn World War II, Westport, CT: Praeger.

Yalçın, Osman (2001), “İkinci Dünya Savaşında İsmet İnönü ve Churchill Arasında Yapılan Adana Görüşmesi”, Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkilâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi, Sayı 47, Bahar.

ZC (TBMM Zabıt Ceridesi) (1944), Dönem 7, Cilt XIII, Ankara: TBMM, 1944.

ZC (TBMM Zabıt Ceridesi) (1945), Dönem 7, Cilt XV ve XXV, Ankara: TBMM.


Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.